Indonesia produces 1 million maricultured corals per year in average, and 10 % of the corals are transplanted back to the reef in restoration efforts. It is estimated that 1 hundred thousand corals per year are transplanted back to the reef!
Coral mariculture provides an income for many coastal communities. It is estimated that 300 households benefit from coral mariculture across Indonesia.
Coral mariculture started in Indonesia in 1998, with research into the types of small-polyped, fast- growing corals, including Acropora and Seriatopora.
In 2002, the Government stipulated that all exporters of wild coral had to start coral mariculture.
The first export of maricultured coral from Indonesia was in 2002, with the majority of exported species being fast-growing and small- polyped species.
Regulation of Ministry of Forestry No. P.19/Menhut-II/2005 about breeding of plants and wildlife
Regulation of Director General of Forest Protection and Nature Conservation (Ministry of Forestry) No. SK.09/IV/Set-3/2008 about Guidelines of Mariculture corals traded
Since 2009, all of the maricultured coral unit have to audit and must have certificate of success as one of requirement to export the maricultured corals
Regulation of Director General of Forest Protection and Nature Conservation (Ministry of Forestry) No. P.4/IV-SET/2011 about Audit Guidelines of Maricultured Corals.
Each coral is labelled with codes that carry information, including:
unit/farmer’s name, year of propagation, species code, generational level (i.e. second fragmentation), fragment number and region of origin.
To date, there are 61 genus/species of large-polyp corals and 11 genus/species of small-polyp species being cultured and available from Indonesia